Genetic differentiation within and between regions. Genetic differentiation between populations within regions and between regions. Differentiation was estimated from microsatellite markers using four different estimators (for explanation, see methods). Points are estimates of differentiation over all loci, bars represent its 95% CI, obtained by bootstrapping over loci. For SNP markers F
was used. Between group values were not calculated for D, because as of yet D has not been hierarchically extended.