Overview of vkorc1 sequence of R. rattus and PCR amplification strategy. (A) Depicted are the vkorc1 gene exons 1-3 (E.1-E.3), 5' and 3' termini (I, IV) and introns (II, III). Shown are the relative positions of the primers Rr1-F and -R [5'-TAGCTGTCACGCCTAAGAA-3'; 5'-GCAAATAAGTGCCTGCTGCC-3'], Rr2-F and -R [5'-ACTTTCGGGAGCTGATTCTC-3'; 5'-CAGACTGATTTTATGTAATG-3'] and Rr3-F and -R [5'-CAGGGTTTCTCTGTGTAAC-3'; 5'-CAGACTTGACCAACATAGAA-3'] that cover vkorc1. (B) Specific PCR amplicons representing three segments covering vkorc1 resolved by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. From left to right: M-1 kb size ladder (Fisher Scientific International, Pittsburgh, PA, USA), PCR products obtained using Rr1-F/R, Rr2-F/R and Rr3-F/R primer pairs for R. rattus, R. norvegicus, and M. m. domesticus.