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Table 5 Scenarios that could occur across the genome with the optimal method of selection.

From: Choice of population structure informative principal components for adjustment in a case-control study

  Structured Phenotype
(K1 ≠ K2)
Non-Structured Phenotype
(K1 = K2)
Structured Genotype
(p 1 ≠ p 2 )
Any method of selection except no PC adjustment Selecting a fixed number of PCs or PCs associated with the SNP
Non-Structured Genotype
(p 1 = p 2 )
Selecting PCs associated with the SNP (α = 0.01), 10% Rule, no PC adjustment Any method of selection
  1. p1 and p2 are the allele frequencies in population 1 and 2, respectively. K1 and K2 are the frequency of disease in population 1 and 2, respectively.