Boundary

Z

r

pvalue


i) present limit of the Sahel area

3.28

0.166

0.072

ii) present limit of the Sudan area

2.53

0.233

0.037

iii) present Northern tsetse limit

3.39

0.155

0.008

iv) tsetse limits + human action^{1}

2.97

0.167

0.046

 Results were obtained after accounting for effects of a third matrix giving information on the three environmental areas of Burkina Faso (Sahel, SudanSahel or Sudan) in which a given population is located. The associated probabilities were calculated by carrying out 10,000 permutations of lines or columns of one of the matrices. Note that, after applying the Bonferroni correction, each of the four partial Mantel tests carried out should be tested at a statistical significance level of 0.0125 for α = 0.05.
 ^{1}like iii) but separating from the tsetse infested area those populations sampled on the road from Ouagadougou to Bobo Dioulasso.