The mating scheme. The mating scheme is illustrated in this figure. Dummy sires connected through dashed arrow to queens are the mating partners. Q-b are queens belonging to the base population and Q-1 to Q-5 are queens belonging to generations 1–5. Each dummy sire is equivalent to 10 drone-producing sister queens. Therefore, in total, 25 dummy sires represent 250 queens. Each generation consisted of queens and a corresponding average worker for each queen to represent a colony structure, and additionally, drone-producing sister colonies in the form of dummy sire. The mating scheme shows that all generations following the base population were overlapping.