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Table 2 Differences between male and female hop plants for growth traits

From: Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulusL.)

Trait Age (months) nfemale plants Female plants mean ± SD nmale plants Male plants mean ± SD P value
Number of shoots 11 671 5.51 ± 4.92 378 5.50 ± 4.33 NS
  24 671 6.49 ± 6.15 378 9.06 ± 6.51 P < 0.0001
Length of the longest shoot 11 606 51.15 ± 33.79 359 51.84 ± 31.32 NS
  24 496 10.79 ± 10.66 327 13.21 ± 12.05 P < 0.005
Number of nodes on the longest shoot 11 606 7.04 ± 2.44 359 7.21 ± 2.44 NS
  24 496 2.80 ± 1.76 327 3.28 ± 1.90 P < 0.0005
Height (at flower initiation) 13 670 3.74 ± 1.29 376 3.58 ± 1.13 P < 0.05
  25 669 5.15 ± 1.00 378 5.03 ± 0.87 P < 0.05
Height (mid-season) 14 624 4.71 ± 1.43 352 3.99 ± 1.17 P < 0.0001
  26 669 5.87 ± 0.46 378 5.34 ± 0.80 P < 0.0001
Height (at cone maturity) 16 666 4.77 ± 0.79 376 4.10 ± 0.90 P < 0.0001
  28 663 4.79 ± 0.76 376 4.18 ± 0.70 P < 0.0001
Lateral length 16 650 50.12 ± 26.57 362 44.80 ± 21.37 P < 0.0005
  28 649 44.65 ± 29.02 333 45.12 ± 20.90 NS
Nodes on lateral 16 650 6.73 ± 3.89 356 6.01 ± 2.41 P < 0.0005
  28 650 6.81 ± 3.41 357 6.08 ± 2.77 P < 0.0005
Internode length 16 152 17.53 ± 4.21 79 17.19 ± 4.88 NS
  28 228 28.04 ± 23.16 111 24.46 ± 18.31 NS
  1. Each trait was assessed in two seasons of plant growth; 'Age’ refers to the age of the plants at the time that each trait was assessed after the trial was planted. 'Female plants n’ refers to the number of female plants assessed for each trait. 'Female plants mean ± SD’ refers to the phenotypic mean and standard deviation of all female plants for each trait. 'Male plants n’ refers to the number of male plants assessed for each trait. 'Male plants mean ± SD’ refers to the phenotypic mean and standard deviation of all male plants for each trait. 'P value’ refers to the significance of similarity between phenotypic variances of female and male plants.