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Table 2 Set of competing models compared for pearl millet and maize real data

From: Association studies including genotype by environment interactions: prospects and limits

Model Specification Number of parameters
   Maize Pearl millet
Fit1 Y = E + Qi + S + (K + e) 12 18
Fit2 Y = E + Qi + S + Qi × E + (K + e) 24 66
Fit3 Y = E + Qi + S + Qi × E + S × E + (K + e) 30 74
Fit4 Y = E + Qi + S + Qi × E + S × E + Qi × S + (K + e) 32 80
Fit5 Y = E + Qi + S + Qi × E + S × E + Qi × S + Qi × S × E + (K + e) 44 128
  1. Y is the trait, E is environmental effect (trial effect), Qi is population structure effect set by ancestry in the the ith population (from k available populations, k-1 are used in the model), S is SNP effect. K is polygenic background random effect set by kinship matrix and e is the residual. A cross between terms represents interaction effect. For each dataset, the total number of model parameters is given.