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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study samples

From: Identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes at 16q22.1 increase diabetic nephropathy risk in Han Chinese population

Characteristics Cases (n = 217) Controls (n = 357) p-value
Sociodemographic factors    
Male 108 (49.8) 170 (47.6) 0.617
Age at enrollment (years) 62.9 × 9.1 62.6 × 9.2 0.673
Diabetes-related variables    
Age at onset of type 2 diabetes (years) 51.8 × 9.4 52.4 × 9.1 0.463
Durations of diabetes (years) 11.1 × 7.7 10.2 × 7.2 0.154
HbA1c at enrollment (%) 8.2 × 1.7 7.9 × 1.4 0.043
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 × 3.9 24.7 × 3.5 < 0.001
Lifestyle behaviors    
Regular exercise 123 (56.7) 260 (72.8) < 0.001
Smoking status    0.926
Ever 33 (15.2) 52 (14.6)  
Yes 36 (16.6) 56 (15.7)  
Alcohol drinking    0.032
Ever 20 (9.2) 14 (3.9)  
Yes 34 (15.7) 63 (17.7)  
Biochemical variables    
Triglycerides (mg/dL)a 156.8 × 1.8 131.1 × 1.8 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 192.8 × 53.8 185.9 × 37.2 0.099
HDL-C (mg/dL) 47.0 × 13.9 49.4 × 13.7 0.042
LDL-C (mg/dL) 118.1 × 42.2 117.5 × 33.3 0.856
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.4 × 1.1 0.7 × 0.2 < 0.001
Uric Acid (mg/dL) 7.4 × 1.9 5.9 × 1.4 < 0.001
BUN (mg/dL) 24.9 × 12.7 15.4 × 4.0 < 0.001
Proteinuria 125 (57.9) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 149 (68.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
History of diseases    
Hypertension 140 (64.5) 156 (43.7) < 0.001
Heart disease 67 (30.9) 64 (17.9) < 0.001
Stroke 17 (7.8) 15 (4.2) 0.066
Diabetic retinopathy 41 (18.9) 41 (11.5) 0.014
Diabetic foot 9 (4.2) 5 (1.4) 0.039
  1. Data were presented as mean × SD for continuous variables or n (%) for categorical variables. eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; BUN: blood urea nitrogen.
  2. aGeometric mean was presented.