Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline characteristics by diabetes status and gender

From: APOL1 genetic variants, chronic kidney diseases and hypertension in mixed ancestry South Africans

Characteristics No diabetes Diabetes p-value Men Women p-value Overall
N 620 239   195 664   859
Gender, men n (%) 140 (22.6) 55 (23.0) 0.892 195 (100) - NA 195 (22.7)
Mean age, years (SD) 51.0 (13.9) 58.7 (12.9) <0.0001 54.5 (14.6) 52.7 (13.9) 0.140 53.1 (14.1)
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 29.4 (7.2) 31.7 (7.4) <0.0001 26.4 (6.4) 31.1 (7.2) <0.0001 30.0 (7.3)
Mean WHR (SD) 0.87 (0.10) 0.92 (0.09) <0.0001 0.93 (0.08) 0.87 (0.10) <0.0001 0.88 (0.10)
Mean SBP, mmHg (SD) 121 (19) 130 (23) <0.0001 127 (19) 123 (21) 0.016 124 (21)
Mean DBP, mmHg (SD) 75 (12) 76 (13) 0.073 77 (12) 76 (13) 0.006 75 (12)
Hypertension, yes (%) 336 (54.2) 156 (65.3) 0.003 94 (48.2) 398 (59.9) 0.004 492 (57.3)
Mean HbA1c, % (SD) 5.7 (0.4) 7.8 (2.1) <0.0001 6.3 (1.7) 6.3 (1.4) 0.901 6.3 (1.5)
Mean FBG, mmol/l (SD) 5.2 (0.7) 9.8 (4.3) <0.0001 6.4 (3.5) 6.4 (3.0) 0.928 6.4 (3.1)
Mean 2-h glucose, mmol/l (SD) 6.5 (1.6) 13.3 (5.0) <0.0001 6.9 (3.0) 7.8 (3.7) 0.004 7.6 (3.5)
Median urine creatinine, mmol/l (25th-75th percentiles) 8.1 [5.3-12.2] 7.0 [4.3-11.3 0.045 10.3 [5.9-14.3] 7.3 [5.0-11.2] <0.0001 7.9 [5.2-11.9]
Median urine Microalbumin, mg/l (25th-75th percentiles) 3.7 [3.0-9.5] 7.6 [3.0-28.9] <0.0001 5.7 [3.0-14.9] 4.1 [3.0-10.4] 0.093 4.4 [3.0-11.3]
Median ACR, mg/mmol (25th-75th percentiles) 0.62 [0.37-1.25] 1.06 [0.59-3.27] <0.0001 0.67 [0.32-1.79] 0.77 [0.45-1.54] 0.123 0.75 [0.41-1.57]
Median serum creatinine,μmol/l (25th-75th percentiles) 79 [69-90] 82 [70-97] 0.016 92 [82-102] 77 [67-88] <0.0001 80 [69-92]
Median eGFR (MDRD), ml/min (SD) 87.8 [73.7-101.9] 79.6 [66.6-96.3] <0.0001 91.6 [77.5-105.8] 84.0 [69.9-98.9] 0.0001 85.8 [71.1-100.7
eGFR (MDRD) <60, n (%) 43 (6.9) 36 (15.1) 0.0002 13 (6.7) 66 (9.9) 0.164 79 (9.2)
Median eGFR (CKD-EPI), ml/min (SD) 94.9 [77.5-110.1] 82.8 [67.8-103.1] <0.0001 96.5 [78.2-111.6] 90.0 [71.9-107.5] 0.033 91.2 [72.8-108.8]
eGFR (CKD-EPI) <60, n (%) 39 (6.3) 34 (14.2) 0.0002 14 (7.2) 59 (8.9) 0.453 73 (8.5)
  1. ACR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; SD, standard deviation