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Table 3 Results obtained on G2 Muscovy offspring. Statistical significance of the effects of grand-maternal (GM) diet, sex and GM diet by sex interaction on traits of G2 Muscovy offspring, and least square means (± SE) of GM dieta, given by sex in case of interaction

From: Influence of grand-mother diet on offspring performances through the male line in Muscovy duck

  N GM diet Sex Diet x sex Met-deficient Control
Growth traits       
 Body weight, 4 weeks 72 + *** ns 1421 ± 20 1468 ± 20
 Body weight, 8 weeks 70 ns *** ns 3530 ± 36 3560 ± 34
 Body weight, 12 weeks 72 + *** * 4112 ± 43 4221 ± 41
  “: males 37     5269 ± 60b 5501 ± 59a
  “: females 35     2955 ± 61 2941 ± 60
 Weight gain, 4-8weeks 70 Ns *** *   
  “: males 36     2678 ± 37a 2596 ± 36b
  “: females 34     1525 ± 38 1589 ± 37
 Weight gain, 8-12weeks 70 * *** *** 574 ± 34b 660 ± 32a
  “: males 36     921 ± 50b 1202 ± 49a
  “: females 34     227 ± 51a 119 ± 50b
 Weight gain, 4-12weeks 72 Ns **** *   
  “: males 37     3609 ± 55b 3798 ± 54a
  “: females 35     1772 ± 57 1708 ± 55
Force-feeding (FF) traits       
 Weight gain during FF 70 ns *** ns 1132 ± 30 1153 ± 30
 Body weight, 14 weeks (end FF) 70 * *** ns 5244 ± 51b 5390 ± 51a
Carcass traits       
 Carcass weight (CW) 71 * *** ns   
 Magretb weight 71 ns *** ns 437 ± 5b 452 ± 5a
 Ratio (magret/carcass) 71 ns * ns   
 Magret muscle weight 71 ns *** ns   
 Ratio (fat + skin/magret) 71 ns ns ns   
 Abdominal fat weight (AF) 71 ns *** ns 154 ± 5 154 ± 5
 Ratio AF/CW % 71   ** ns 3.29 ± 0.10 3.18 ± 0.10
 Liver weight (LW) 71 + *** ns 479 ± 12 451 ± 12
 Ratio (LW/CW) 71 * *** ns 10.3 ± 0.2a 9.6 ± 0.2b
Blood metabolites 71      
 Glucose mid-FF (g/L) 71 ns ns ns   
 Glucose end-FF (g/L) 71 ns * ns   
 Triglycerides mid-FF (g/L) 71 ** *** ** 0.41 ± 0.02a 0.33 ± 0.02b
  “: males 37     0.32 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02
  “: females 34     0.50 ± 0.02a 0.35 ± 0.02b
 Triglycerides end-FF (g/L) 70 * + ns 0.59 ± 0.06a 0.40 ± 0.06b
  1. aLeast square means of GM diets are given for traits showing an effect of GM diet (P < 0.10) and also for traits showing a significant GM effect in the mule duck progeny (P < 0.05)
  2. b“Magret” is the Pectoralis major with skin of a force-fed duck; FF = Force Feding
  3. ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05; +P < 0.10; ns: not significant. a,b Values within a row with different superscripts differ significantly at P < 0.05