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Table 2 Associations of BMI, WHR, and childhood BMI genetic risk scores with infant growth (N = 2,955)a

From: Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures

Risk score (number of SNPs in risk score) Peak weight velocityb BMI at adiposity peakb Age at adiposity peakb
Beta (CI 95 %) P-value Beta (CI 95 %) P-value Beta (CI 95 %) P-value
Main risk scores*
 Adult BMI (N = 97) 0.027 (−0.004; 0.058) 0.093 0.048 (0.015; 0.081) 0.005 0.015 (−0.021; 0.051) 0.418
 Secondary risk scores
 Adult WHR (N = 47) −0.022 (−0.054; 0.010) 0.180 −0.010 (−0.044; 0.025) 0.587 −0.016 (−0.053; 0.022) 0.411
 Child BMI (N = 15) 0.038 (0.007; 0.070) 0.018 0.039 (0.006; 0.073) 0.023 0.027 (−0.010; 0.063) 0.153
Adult BMI pathway genetic risk scores**
Neuronal
 Neuronal developmental processes (N = 29) 0.036 (0.003; 0.070) 0.031 0.049 (0.013; 0.084) 0.007 −0.020 (−0.058; 0.019) 0.311
 Neurotransmission (N = 10) −0.009 (−0.040; 0.022) 0.558 −0.001 (−0.034; 0.032) 0.948 0.002 (−0.034; 0.038) 0.901
 Hypothalamic expression and regulation (N = 13) 0.001 (−0.030; 0.033) 0.932 0.008 (−0.025; 0.042) 0.637 0.023 (−0.013; 0.059) 0.203
 Neuronal expression (N = 12) −0.034 (−0.065; −0.003) 0.034 −0.010 (−0.044; 0.024) 0.559 0.026 (−0.010; 0.062) 0.159
 Lipid biosynthesis and metabolism (N = 10) 0.002 (−0.030; 0.033) 0.918 0.006 (−0.028; 0.040) 0.358 0.020 (−0.017; 0.056) 0.291
 Bone development (N = 9) 0.017 (−0.014; 0.048) 0.290 0.017 (−0.017; 0.050) 0.336 0.001 (−0.035; 0.037) 0.957
Signaling
 MAPK1/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (N = 9) 0.009 (−0.022; 0.040) 0.579 0.008 (−0.025; 0.042) 0.625 0.011 (−0.025; 0.047) 0.534
 JAK (N = 2) −0.007 (−0.038; 0.025) 0.679 −0.005 (−0.038; 0.029) 0.779 −0.006 (−0.042; 0.030) 0.750
 CyclicAMP (N = 5) −0.020 (−0.052; 0.013) 0.233 0.019 (−0.015; 0.054) 0.368 −0.016 (−0.053; 0.021) 0.391
 WNTSignaling (N = 6) 0.033 (0.001; 0.064) 0.041 0.017 (−0.016; 0.051) 0.311 0.019 (−0.017; 0.055) 0.293
G-protein coupled receptor
 Notch signaling (N = 2) 0.010 (−0.021; 0.041) 0.531 0.009 (−0.024; 0.043) 0.581 0.012 (−0.024; 0.048) 0.508
 Mitochondrial (N = 8) 0.010 (−0.023; 0.043) 0.559 0.004 (−0.032; 0.039) 0.840 0.039 (0.001; 0.077) 0.046
 Retinoic acid receptors (N = 6) 0.019 (−0.013; 0.050) 0.245 0.025 (−0.009; 0.058) 0.144 0.019 (−0.017; 0.055) 0.308
 Endocytosis/exocytosis (N = 14) 0.004 (−0.027; 0.036) 0.778 0.005 (−0.028; 0.038) 0.776 0.007 (−0.029; 0.043) 0.699
 Eye-related (N = 5) 0.010 (−0.022; 0.042) 0.548 0.010 (−0.025; 0.045) 0.567 −0.030 (−0.067; 0.007) 0.116
 Tumorigenesis (N = 11) 0.018 (−0.015; 0.050) 0.285 0.018 (−0.017; 0.052) 0.320 −0.001 (−0.038; 0.036) 0.954
 Apoptosis (N = 13) 0.027 (−0.004; 0.059) 0.087 0.018 (−0.016; 0.052) 0.294 0.033 (−0.004; 0.069) 0.077
 Membrane proteins (N = 12) 0.057 (0.025; 0.088) 3.88*10 −4 0.048 (0.015; 0.082) 0.005 0.028 (−0.008; 0.065) 0.124
 Hormone metabolism/regulation (N = 4) −0.009 (−0.041; 0.022) 0.564 −0.009 (−0.042; 0.025) 0.610 0.010 (−0.027; 0.046) 0.604
 Purine/pyrimidine cycle (N = 4) 0.009 (−0.022; 0.041) 0.557 0.039 (0.006; 0.073) 0.023 −0.025 (−0.061; 0.011) 0.178
 Monogenic obesity/energy homeostasis (N = 9) −0.013 (−0.045; 0.018) 0.406 −0.014 (−0.048; 0.020) 0.413 0.026 (−0.011; 0.062) 0.168
 Immune system (N = 15) 0.045 (0.014; 0.076) 0.005 0.049 (0.015; 0.082) 0.004 −0.003 (−0.039; 0.033) 0.868
 Limb development (N = 3) 0.018 (−0.014; 0.049) 0.267 0.022 (−0.011; 0.056) 0.195 0.001 (−0.035; 0.037) 0.945
 Ubiquitin pathways (N = 6) −0.006 (−0.038; 0.025) 0.684 0.007 (−0.027; 0.040) 0.693 −0.025 (−0.061; 0.011) 0.168
 Glucose homeostasis/diabetes (N = 11) 0.023 (−0.009; 0.054) 0.160 0.021 (−0.013; 0.055) 0.219 0.026 (−0.010; 0.063) 0.156
 Cell cycle (N = 23) 0.008 (−0.023; 0.039) 0.611 0.011 (−0.023; 0.044) 0.538 −0.001 (−0.037; 0.035) 0.959
DNARepair
 Nuclear trafficking (N = 4) −0.015 (−0.047; 0.017) 0.362 −0.023 (−0.057; 0.011) 0.187 −0.032 (−0.068; 0.005) 0.092
 Muscle biology (N = 6) −0.011 (−0.043; 0.020) 0.479 −0.0003 (−0.034; 0.033) 0.985 0.014 (−0.022; 0.050) 0.446
  1. * Bold font indicates P-value < 0.05. ** Bold font indicates significant after Bonferroni correction for the 28 pathways (p-value < 0.0018)
  2. aAnalyses were performed in children with complete data on genetic variants, at least one outcome under study, and covariates
  3. bValues are linear regression coefficients for models adjusted for sex and the first four genetic principal components and represent the difference in standard deviation scores of the outcome measures for each additional average risk allele in the risk scores