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Table 3 Associations of BMI, WHR, and childhood BMI genetic risk scores with childhood adiposity (N = 3,975)a, b

From: Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures

Risk score (number of SNPs in risk score) Body mass indexc Total fat massc,d,e Android/gynoid ratioc,d,e Preperitoneal fat areac,d,e
Beta (CI 95 %) P-value Beta (CI 95 %) P-value Beta (CI 95 %) P-value Beta (CI 95 %) P-value
Main risk scores*
 Adult BMI (N = 97) 0.112 (0.084; 0.141) 1.01*10 −14 0.092 (0.065; 0.119) 3.89*10 −11 0.077 (0.045; 0.108) 2.00*10 −6 0.034 (0.001; 0.066) 0.042
 Secondary risk scores
 Adult WHR (N = 47) −0.012 (−0.042; 0.017) 0.405 −0.012 (−0.040 0.016) 0.402 0.073 (0.041; 0.105) 8.00*10 −6 0.029 (−0.004; 0.061) 0.088
 Child BMI (N = 15) 0.091 (0.063; 0.119) 3.43*10 −10 0.073 (0.046; 0.100) 1.40*10 −7 0.081 (0.050; 0.112) 3.75*10 −7 0.038 (0.006; 0.070) 0.020
Adult BMI pathway genetic risk scores**
Neuronal
 Neuronal developmental processes (N = 29) 0.018 (0.014; 0.023) 2.25*10-5 0.032 (0.003; 0.061) 0.031 0.038 (0.004; 0.071) 0.029 0.008 (−0.026; 0.042) 0.654
 Neurotransmission (N = 10) 0.013 (−0.015; 0.042) 0.370 −0.003 (−0.030; 0.024) 0.827 0.002 (−0.029; 0.034) 0.876 −0.009 (−0.040; 0.023) 0.595
 Hypothalamic expression and regulation (N = 13) 0.099 (0.071; 0.128) 5.81*10 −12 0.089 (0.062; 0.115) 1.29*10 −10 0.080 (0.049; 0.111) 5.30*10 −7 0.041 (0.009; 0.073) 0.013
 Neuronal expression (N = 12) 0.017 (−0.012; 0.046) 0.240 0.020 (−0.008; 0.047) 0.165 0.036 (0.004; 0.068) 0.027 0.009 (−0.023; 0.041) 0.583
0.023 (−0.005; 0.052) 0.112 0.013 (−0.014; 0.041) 0.341 0.016 (−0.016; 0.048) 0.320 −0.001 (−0.033; 0.032) 0.972
 Bone development (N = 9) 0.018 (−0.011; 0.064) 0.226 0.006 (−0.021; 0.033) 0.656 0.015 (−0.016; 0.047) 0.340 0.004 (−0.028; 0.036) 0.811
Signaling
 MAPK1/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (N = 9) 0.034 (0.006; 0.062) 0.018 0.037 (0.010; 0.064) 0.008 0.023 (−0.008; 0.054) 0.149 0.014 (−0.017; 0.046) 0.378
 JAK (N = 2) 0.033 (0.005; 0.062) 0.023 0.020 (−0.007; 0.047) 0.150 0.012 (−0.020; 0.043) 0.457 0.007 (−0.025; 0.039) 0.676
 CyclicAMP (N = 5) 0.046 (0.017; 0.075) 0.002 0.052 (0.024; 0.079) 2.75*10 −4 0.039 (0.006; 0.071) 0.019 0.026 (−0.007; 0.058) 0.123
 WNTSignaling (N = 6) 0.058 (0.030; 0.087) 6.10*10 −5 0.029 (0.002; 0.057) 0.034 0.039 (0.007; 0.070) 0.016 0.032 (0.000; 0.064) 0.047
G-protein coupled receptor
 Notch signaling (N = 2) −0.027 (−0.056; 0.001) 0.059 −0.028 (−0.055; 0.000) 0.046 −0.028 (−0.059; 0.003) 0.075 −0.028 (−0.060; 0.003) 0.080
 Mitochondrial (N = 8) 0.040 (0.010; 0.070) 0.009 0.041 (0.012; 0.069) 0.005 −0.002 (−0.035; 0.031) 0.905 −0.003 (−0.037; 0.031) 0.877
 Retinoic acid receptors (N = 6) 0.045 (0.017; 0.074) 0.002 0.037 (0.010; 0.065) 0.007 0.016 (−0.015; 0.047) 0.313 0.017 (−0.015; 0.049) 0.293
 Endocytosis/exocytosis (N = 14) −0.012 (−0.041; 0.016) 0.400 −0.003 (−0.030; 0.024) 0.840 −0.021 (−0.053; 0.010) 0.178 −0.020 (−0.051; 0.012) 0.218
 Eye-related (N = 5) 0.012 (−0.016; 0.041) 0.398 0.015 (−0.012; 0.043) 0.276 −0.012 (−0.044; 0.020) 0.456 0.003 (−0.029; 0.035) 0.845
 Tumorigenesis (N = 11) 0.041 (0.012; 0.070) 0.006 0.020 (−0.008; 0.048) 0.161 0.017 (−0.016; 0.049) 0.312 0.013 (−0.020; 0.046) 0.431
 Apoptosis (N = 13) 0.025 (−0.003; 0.054) 0.084 0.020 (−0.007; 0.047) 0.151 −0.008 (−0.039; 0.024) 0.621 −0.036 (−0.068; −0.004) 0.028
 Membrane proteins (N = 12) 0.075 (0.046; 0.103) 2.44*10 −7 0.044 (0.017; 0.071) 0.002 0.059 (0.028; 0.090) 1.93*10 −4 0.011 (−0.021; 0.044) 0.495
 Hormone metabolism/regulation (N = 4) 0.021 (−0.008; 0.049) 0.161 0.043 (0.015; 0.070) 0.002 0.026 (−0.005; 0.057) 0.103 0.004 (−0.028; 0.036) 0.812
 Purine/pyrimidine cycle (N = 4) 0.013 (−0.016; 0.041) 0.379 0.004 (−0.023; 0.031) 0.762 −0.017 (−0.048; 0.014) 0.285 −0.007 (−0.038; 0.024) 0.661
 Monogenic obesity/energy homeostasis (N = 9) 0.074 (0.045; 0.102) 4.74*10 −7 0.068 (0.041; 0.095) 1.00*10 −6 0.065 (0.034; 0.096) 5.00*10 −5 0.030 (−0.003; 0.062) 0.072
 Immune system (N = 15) 0.045 (0.017; 0.074) 0.002 0.037 (0.010; 0.065) 0.008 0.021 (−0.011; 0.052) 0.193 −0.008 (−0.040; 0.024) 0.620
 Limb development (N = 3) 0.035 (0.007; 0.064) 0.015 0.024 (−0.006; 0.049) 0.125 0.028 (−0.003; 0.060) 0.076 0.004 (−0.028; 0.036) 0.794
 Ubiquitin pathways (N = 6) −0.007 (−0.036; 0.021) 0.617 0.006 (−0.021; 0.034) 0.656 −0.011 (−0.043; 0.020) 0.483 −0.015 (−0.047; 0.017) 0.359
 Glucose homeostasis/diabetes (N = 11) 0.050 (0.021; 0.079) 0.001 0.023 (−0.004; 0.051) 0.096 0.042 (0.011; 0.074) 0.008 0.009 (−0.023; 0.042) 0.575
 Cell cycle (N = 23) 0.044 (0.016; 0.073) 0.002 0.047 (0.019; 0.074) 0.001 0.024 (−0.007; 0.055) 0.135 0.007 (−0.025; 0.039) 0.684
DNARepair
 Nuclear trafficking (N = 4) −0.005 (−0.034; 0.023) 0.716 −0.009 (−0.036; 0.018) 0.518 −0.004 (−0.036; 0.028) 0.804 −0.008 (−0.041; 0.024) 0.608
 Muscle biology (N = 6) 0.048 (0.020; 0.077) 0.001 0.029 (0.002; 0.057) 0.038 0.025 (−0.007; 0.056) 0.127 0.022 (−0.010; 0.054) 0.181
  1. * Bold font indicates P-value < 0.05. ** Bold font indicates significant after Bonferroni correction for the 28 pathways (p-value < 0.0018)
  2. aAnalyses were performed in children with complete data on genetic variants, at least one outcome under study, and covariates
  3. bValues are linear regression coefficients for models adjusted for sex and the first four genetic principal components and represent the difference in standard deviation scores of the outcome measures for each additional average risk allele in the risk scores
  4. cValues are additionally adjusted for age
  5. dValues are additionally adjusted for height
  6. eRegression coefficients are based on standard deviation scores of ln-transformed outcome measures