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Fig. 5 | BMC Genetics

Fig. 5

From: Investigating knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism against pyrethroids/DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Africa

Fig. 5

Africa-wide diversity pattern of fragment of VGSC spanning exon 20. a Haplotype diversity patterns of the 875 bp fragment in Benin (BN, West Africa), Uganda (UG, East Africa), Kenya (KN, East Africa) and Malawi (ML, southern Africa). b TCS haplotype network showing a high polymorphism of the VGSC fragment with high number of mutational steps between haplotypes. The predominant haplotype H4 is completely absent in southern Africa further suggesting barriers to gene flow between this region and others. c Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the 875 bp fragment spanning exon 20 that Malawi haplotypes always cluster separately from those of other regions. d Neighbor-joining tree of the genetic distances showing that Malawi is genetically differentiated from the other regions

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