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Table 1 Variance component estimates and genetic correlations for honey yield and defensive and swarming behaviors

From: Modeling honey yield, defensive and swarming behaviors of Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) using linear-threshold approaches

Statistic Honey yield (kg) Defensive behavior (1–5) Swarming behavior (1–5)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
\( {\sigma}_W^2 \) 71.12 (1.94) 12.93 (3.42) 17.46 (4.04)
\( {\sigma}_{MQ}^2 \) 24.73 (2.13) 5.97 (2.14) 8.81 (1.80)
Cov W-MQ 0.34 (2.56) −8.38 (1.42) −11.39 (2.60)
\( {\sigma}_Q^2 \) 50.14 (7.15) 2.59 (0.57) 4.18 (0.92)
\( {\sigma}_{py- ta}^2 \) 110.75 (14.87) 105.85 (14.91) 1.76 (0.53) 1.33 (0.42) 1.83 (0.53) 1.64 (0.48)
\( {\sigma}_e^2 \) 6.97 (0.60) 35.98 (5.49) 0.24 (0.28) 3.24 (1.47) 0.43 (0.50) 6.35 (1.85)
\( {\sigma}_p^2 \) 213.91 191.97 12.52 7.17 39.92 12.17
\( {h}_W^2 \) 0.33 (0.03) > 1 (0.08) 0.44 (0.08)
\( {h}_{MQ}^2 \) 0.12 (0.01) 0.48 (0.12) 0.22 (0.13)
\( {h}_C^2 \) 0.45 (0.02) 0.17 (0.08) 0.20 (0.08)
r W −  MQ 0.01 (0.01) −0.95 (0.12) −0.92 (0.13)
\( {h}_Q^2 \) 0.26 (0.04) 0.36 (0.01) 0.34 (0.01)
r EBV-Y 0.42 0.43 0.18 0.27 0.19 0.46