Implementation of the genetic algorithm. a) In a full sib family, the haplotype of individual I is to be estimated. Since no parent is available, the first heterozygous marker is phased arbitrarily allele "1" being of paternal origin and allele "2" being of maternal origin. The three offspring have been phased by a deterministic approach. b) Step1: Five GA individuals are randomly sampled (a, b, c, d, e). Each sample is a possible haplotype of the non-phased markers of individual I. c) Step2: Fitness of the GA individuals is computed as a likelihood function of the number of recombinations observed in the offspring chromosomes. d) Step3: The GA individuals with higher fitness (c, d, e) are selected and crossed in a simulated diploid reproduction mechanism that generates the sample of GA individuals for the next generation.