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Table 2 Scenarios of population structure that could occur across the genome.

From: Choice of population structure informative principal components for adjustment in a case-control study

  Structured Phenotype
(K1≠ K2)
Non-Structured Phenotype
(K1 = K2)
Structured Genotype
(p 1 ≠ p 2 )
A B
Non-Structured Genotype
(p 1 = p 2 )
C D
  1. p1 and p2 are the allele frequencies in population 1 and 2, respectively. K1 and K2 are the frequency of disease in population 1 and 2, respectively.