h
_{
m
}
^{2}

Method

Corr_{(m,d)}

Accuracy of direct EBV for JQ (SE)

Accuracy of maternal EBV for JQ (SE)

Accuracy of direct EBV for AQ (SE)

Accuracy of maternal EBV for AQ (SE)


0.15

UNI

0

0.323 ^{a,b,c,d} (0.015)

0.279 ^{a,b,c,d} (0.015)

0.446 ^{a,b,c,d} (0.011)

0.420 ^{a,b,c,d} (0.009)

PED

0

0.227 (0.023)

0.225 (0.019)

0.406 (0.012)

0.381 (0.010)

UNI

−0.46

0.115 ^{b,d} (0.023)

0.127 ^{b} (0.031)

0.225 ^{b,d} (0.018)

0.223 ^{b,d} (0.013)

PED

−0.46

0.059 (0.025)

0.103 (0.030)

0.186 (0.016)

0.208 (0.012)

0.25

UNI

0

0.373 ^{a,b,c} (0.016)

0.330 ^{a,b,c,e} (0.014)

0.510 ^{b,c,e} (0.013)

0.482 ^{a,b,c,e} (0.010)

PED

0

0.268 (0.021)

0.260 (0.018)

0.474 (0.013)

0.447 (0.011)

UNI

−0.46

0.154 ^{b} (0.023)

0.154 ^{b} (0.031)

0.272 ^{b} (0.017)

0.257 ^{b} (0.014)

PED

−0.46

0.085 (0.025)

0.125 (0.030)

0.231 (0.016)

0.240 (0.013)

0.35

UNI

0

0.418 ^{a,b,d} (0.017)

0.371 ^{a,b,d,e} (0.014)

0.566 ^{b,d,e} (0.015)

0.527 ^{b,d,e} (0.011)

PED

0

0.307 (0.018)

0.287 (0.017)

0.538 (0.015)

0.496 (0.013)

UNI

−0.46

0.186 ^{a,b,d} (0.024)

0.173 ^{b} (0.031)

0.308 ^{b,d} (0.017)

0.280 ^{b,d} (0.015)


PED

−0.46

0.110 (0.025)

0.138 (0.030)

0.268 (0.016)

0.258 (0.014)

 EBV, Estimated breeding values; h_{
m
}^{2}, Maternal heritability; UNI, UNI_BLUP; PED, PED_BLUP; Corr_{
(m,d)
}, Correlation between maternal and direct effects; JQ, Juvenile queens; AQ, All queens; SE, Standard error.
 Significant difference in accuracy with P < 0.05 (Welch’s ttest) between: ^{a}UNI_BLUP and PED_BLUP; ^{b}no correlation and negative correlation for UNI_BLUP; ^{c}heritabilities 0.15 and 0.25 for UNI_BLUP; ^{d}heritabilities 0.15 and 0.35 for UNI_BLUP; ^{e}heritabilities 0.25 and 0.35 for UNI_BLUP.