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Table 1 Genetic variation and heritability of traits associated with cone chemistry, cone yield and plant growth in hop

From: Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulusL.)

    Variance components      Fixed effects Heritability
  Trait Age (months) Rep.iblock Additive Error VP CVA t Pr > t Rep P > F Sex P > F h 2 SE
Plant growth Number of shoots 11 0.09 0.06 0.88 1.03 0.05 2.75 P < 0.005 8.53 P < 0.0001 885.16 P < 0.0001 0.06 0.02
   24 0.56 0.40 4.97 5.93 0.09 2.87 P < 0.005 3.22 P < 0.05 1556.87 P < 0.0001 0.07 0.02
  Length of the longest shoot 11 0.32 0.33 5.86 6.52 0.01 2.31 P < 0.05 2.84 P < 0.05 1674.14 P < 0.0001 0.05 0.02
   24 0.09 0.37 1.84 2.31 0.05 4.28 P < 0.0001 2.39 NS 661.01 P < 0.0001 0.16 0.03
  Number of nodes on the longest shoot 11 0.56 0.40 4.97 5.93 0.09 2.87 P < 0.005 3.22 P < 0.05 1556.87 P < 0.0001 0.07 0.02
   24 0.03 0.03 0.23 0.29 0.06 3.38 P < 0.0005 0.74 NS 1407.14 P < 0.0001 0.10 0.03
  Height (at flower initiation) 13 0.05 0.09 1.32 1.45 0.08 2.73 P < 0.005 11.27 P < 0.0001 2550.49 P < 0.0001 0.06 0.02
   25 0.00 0.10 0.81 0.91 0.06 3.91 P < 0.0001 2.36 NS 7621.12 P < 0.0001 0.11 0.03
  Height (mid-season) 14 0.51 0.07 1.21 1.79 0.06 2.30 P < 0.05 1.55 NS 1177.69 P < 0.0001 0.04 0.02
   26 0.00 0.03 0.33 0.36 0.03 3.57 P < 0.0005 1.08 NS 23768.91 P < 0.0001 0.09 0.02
  Height (at cone maturity) 16 0.01 0.07 0.60 0.68 0.06 3.77 P < 0.0001 2.72 P < 0.05 7756.84 P < 0.0001 0.10 0.03
   28 0.01 0.08 0.58 0.66 0.06 4.03 P < 0.0001 2.94 P < 0.05 7709.27 P < 0.0001 0.12 0.03
  Lateral length 16 0.10 0.38 7.17 7.65 0.01 2.28 P < 0.05 0.77 NS 3218.57 P < 0.0001 0.05 0.02
   28 2.58 0.21 2.96 5.74 0.01 2.50 P < 0.01 0.27 NS 511.01 P < 0.0001 0.04 0.01
  Number of nodes on lateral 16 0.01 0.02 0.32 0.35 0.02 2.11 P < 0.05 1.51 NS 4820.12 P < 0.0001 0.04 0.02
   28 0.01 0.02 0.32 0.35 0.02 2.06 P < 0.05 1.50 NS 4851.78 P < 0.0001 0.04 0.02
  Internode length 16 0.00 0.06 0.23 0.29 0.01 2.31 P < 0.05 1.51 NS 4477.69 P < 0.0001 0.20 0.08
   28 1.39 0.00 1.82 3.21 0.00 0.00 NS 0.06 NS 216.63 P < 0.0001 0.04 0.02
  Height to the cones 16 0.01 0.03 0.33 0.38 0.10 2.54 P < 0.005 612.18 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.08 0.03
   28 0.01 0.04 0.32 0.37 0.12 2.86 P < 0.005 590.26 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.11 0.04
Yield Green cone weight 28 0.01 0.00 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.33 NS 243.57 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.03 0.10
Cone chemistry Cohumulone 16 0.00 0.03 0.07 0.10 0.06 4.14 P < 0.0001 1076.93 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.29 0.06
   28 NA 0.02 0.08 0.09 0.05 1.74 P < 0.05 895.61 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.18 0.10
  Humulone + adhumulone 16 0.00 0.04 0.12 0.16 0.03 3.93 P < 0.0001 1714.16 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.26 0.06
   28 0.00 0.02 0.12 0.15 0.03 1.72 P < 0.05 1250.91 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.17 0.09
  Colupulone 16 0.00 0.02 0.07 0.09 0.06 3.39 P < 0.0005 1105.00 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.21 0.06
   28 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.08 0.04 1.38 NS 950.66 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.15 0.10
  Lupulone + adlupulone 16 0.00 0.02 0.07 0.09 0.07 3.60 P < 0.0005 1076.23 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.23 0.05
   28 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.06 1.93 P < 0.05 868.60 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.21 0.10
  α-acid 16 0.00 2.00 5.41 7.41 0.16 3.99 P < 0.0001 503.89 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.27 0.06
   28 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.14 0.02 1.45 NS 1051.50 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.16 0.10
  β-acid 16 0.00 0.03 0.12 0.15 0.04 3.34 P < 0.001 1320.40 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.20 0.05
   28 0.00 0.03 0.17 0.21 0.04 1.56 NS 1319.15 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.15 0.10
  Cohumulone (% of α-acid) 16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 3.90 P < 0.0001 2855.30 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.26 0.06
   28 NA 0.72 0.00 0.72 2.67 2.72 P < 0.005 3333.97 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.29 0.09
  α-acid:β-acid 16 NA 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.05 3.32 P < 0.001 1673.84 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.20 0.05
   28 0.00 0.03 0.12 0.16 0.10 2.03 P < 0.05 500.11 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.21 0.10
  α-acid:total resin 16 NA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 3.52 P < 0.0005 11960.40 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.22 0.05
   28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 2.05 P < 0.05 5383.75 P < 0.0001 NA NA 0.22 0.10
  1. 'Age’ refers to the time that each trait was assessed after the trial was planted. 'Rep.iblock’ refers to the random effect of replicate.incomplete-block. 'Additive’ refers to additive genetic variance. 'Error’ refers to the random effect of residuals. 'VP’ refers to the phenotypic variance. 'CVA’ refers to the coefficient of additive genetic variance. 't’ refers to the t-value for Additive and 'Pr > t’ refers to its significance. 'Rep’ and 'Sex’ refers to the fixed effects of replicate and plant sex on the trait, respectively; 'P > F’ refers to their significance in each case. 'h2’ refers to the narrow-sense heritability and 'SE’ refers to standard error of h2.