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Table 3 Additive genetic and phenotypic correlations between cone chemical traits and plant growth traits in hop

From: Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulusL.)

  α-acid β-acid Cohumulone (% of α-acid) α-acid:β-acid α-acid:total resin
a.
α-acid   0.44 ± 0.04 0.02 ± 0.06 0.37 ± 0.05 0.39 ± 0.05
β-acid 0.48 ± 0.15   0.00 ± 0.06 -0.65 ± 0.03 -0.63 ± 0.03
cohumulone (% of α-acid) 0.17 ± 0.18 -0.13 ± 0.20   0.02 ± 0.06 0.02 ± 0.06
α-acid:β-acid 0.52 ± 0.15 -0.50 ± 0.15 0.29 ± 0.20   0.97 ± 0.00
α-acid:total resin 0.47 ± 0.15 -0.55 ± 0.14 0.27 ± 0.19 1.00 ± 0.01  
b.
α-acid   0.31 ± 0.06 0.09 ± 0.07 0.54 ± 0.05 0.53 ± 0.05
β-acid -0.08 ± 0.49   -0.05 ± 0.07 -0.59 ± 0.05 -0.20 ± 0.10
Cohumulone (% of α-acid) 0.17 ± 0.33 -0.20 ± 0.36   0.10 ± 0.07 0.12 ± 0.07
α-acid:β-acid 0.78 ± 0.25 -0.60 ± 0.27 0.19 ± 0.30   0.95 ± 0.01
α-acid:total resin 0.78 ± 0.26 -1.00 ± 38.48 0.30 ± 0.30 0.96 ± 0.03  
c.
  Number of shoots Length of the longest shoot Height (at flower initiation) Height (at cone maturity) Height to the cones Lateral length
Number of shoots   0.57 ± 0.02 0.14 ± 0.25 0.22 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04
Length of the longest shoot 0.87 ± 0.12   0.28 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.03 -0.02 ± 0.04 0.12 ± 0.04
Height (at flower initiation) 0.14 ± 0.25 -0.01 ± 0.23   0.42 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.04 0.18 ± 0.03
Height (at cone maturity) 0.18 ± 0.21 -0.20 ± 0.24 0.77 ± 0.10   0.24 ± 0.04 0.34 ± 0.03
Height to the cones -0.22 ± 0.25 -0.01 ± 0.04 0.62 ± 0.19 0.66 ± 0.16   0.21 ± 0.05
Lateral length 0.22 ± 0.26 0.04 ± 0.28 0.56 ± 0.19 0.99 ± 0.12 0.16 ± 0.26  
  1. Pairwise additive genetic correlations and pairwise phenotypic correlations form the lower and upper parts of the matrix, respectively. The standard error of each correlation is given. Correlations statistically different from zero (P < 0.05) are shown in bold. a. refers to cone chemical traits assessed in the first year of plant growth (16 months after the trial was planted); and b. refers to cone chemical traits assessed in the second year of plant growth (28 months after the trial was planted). c. refers to plant growth traits assessed in the second year of plant growth; the traits number of shoots and length of the longest shoot were assessed in the first year of plant growth (11 months after the trial was planted); the traits height (at flower initiation), height (at cone maturity), height to cones and lateral length were assessed in the second year of plant growth (height (at flowering) at 25 months after the trial was planted and the remaining traits at 28 months after the trial was planted).