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Table 5 Genetic and phenotypic correlations between cone chemical traits, cone yield and plant growth traits in hop

From: Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulusL.)

  Number of shoots Length of the longest shoot Height (at flower initiation) Height (at cone maturity) Height to the cones Lateral length
  Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation
a.
α-acid -0.05 ± 0.34 0.06 ± 0.07 0.03 ± 0.34 0.09 ± 0.07 -0.56 ± 0.29 -0.09 ± 0.07 -0.82 ± 0.26 -0.08 ± 0.07 -0.59 ± 0.35 -0.26 ± 0.08 -0.49 ± 0.37 -0.03 ± 0.07
β-acid -0.11 ± 0.34 -0.07 ± 0.07 -0.07 ± 0.34 -0.07 ± 0.07 -0.42 ± 0.28 -0.20 ± 0.07 -0.55 ± 0.25 0.04 ± 0.07 -0.22 ± 0.35 -0.16 ± 0.08 -0.62 ± 0.37 -0.14 ± 0.07
cohumulone (% of α-acid) 0.16 ± 0.25 0.10 ± 0.07 0.45 ± 0.24 0.25 ± 0.06 -0.21 ± 0.21 0.07 ± 0.07 -0.39 ± 0.19 0.03 ± 0.07 -0.07 ± 0.24 -0.01 ± 0.08 -0.04 ± 0.26 0.03 ± 0.07
α-acid:β-acid 0.17 ± 0.29 0.11 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.29 0.13 ± 0.07 -0.15 ± 0.24 0.10 ± 0.07 -0.22 ± 0.23 -0.00 ± 0.07 -0.22 ± 0.28 -0.07 ± 0.08 0.05 ± 0.29 0.05 ± 0.07
α-acid:total resin 0.04 ± 0.29 0.10 ± 0.07 0.01 ± 0.29 0.13 ± 0.07 -0.12 ± 0.24 0.10 ± 0.07 -0.13 ± 0.22 -0.01 ± 0.07 -0.30 ± 0.30 -0.05 ± 0.08 0.12 ± 0.27 0.09 ± 0.07
b.
  Green cone weight  
  Genetic correlation Phenotypic correlation
α-acid -0.93 ± 0.72 0.22 ± 0.07
β-acid -0.63 ± 0.53 0.05 ± 0.07
Cohumulone (% of α-acid) -0.44 ± 0.09 0.05 ± 0.07
α-acid:β-acid 0.83 ± 0.21 0.16 ± 0.07
α-acid:total resin 0.42 ± 0.19 0.14 ± 0.07
c.   
Number of shoots 0.62 ± 0.30 0.24 ± 0.82
Length of the longest shoot -0.27 ± 0.79 0.05 ± 0.07
Height (at flower initiation) -0.95 ± 0.37 0.20 ± 0.07
Height (at cone maturity) -1.00 ± 0.19 0.21 ± 0.07
Height to the cones -0.94 ± 0.34 -0.94 ± 0.34
Lateral length -0.93 ± 0.25 -0.93 ± 0.25
  1. Cone chemical traits and yield were assessed in the second year of plant growth (28 months after the trial was planted). The plant growth traits number of shoots and length of the longest shoot were assessed in the first year of plant growth (11 months after the trial was planted) while height (at flower initiation), height (at cone maturity), height to the cones and lateral length were assessed in the second year of plant growth (height (at flower initiation) at 25 months after the trial was planted and the remaining plant growth traits at 28 months after the trial was planted). The standard error of each correlation is given. Correlations statistically different from zero (P < 0.05) are shown in bold. a. refers to genetic and phenotypic correlations between cone chemical traits and plant growth traits. b. refers to genetic and phenotypic correlations between cone chemical traits and yield. c. refers to genetic and phenotypic correlations between plant growth traits and yield.