Validation profiles of differentially expressed sex-differentiation genes. Differentially expressed sex-differentiation genes of Figure 4 were further validated by qRT-PCR. Expression in male testes is depicted in blue color columns and expression in female accessory glands and spermathecae in red. Standard error of the mean of the two biological replicates is shown in bars. In all genes, except sox and pcp, expression in FEMALE and MALE was significantly different, as determined by t-test (p < 0.05).