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Table 1 Baseline clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants

From: Circadian CLOCK gene polymorphisms in relation to sleep patterns and obesity in African Americans: findings from the Jackson heart study

Variables   Men (N = 1116) Women (N = 1810)  
Age (years)   53.67 ± 13.0 54.88 ± 12.71 0.0133
PEA   0.18 ± 0.09 0.17 ± 0.09 0.006
Annual household income
  <$20,000- 19.14% 32.03% <.0001
  $20,000–50,000 34.16% 39.48%
  >$50,000 46.71% 28.50%
Smoking status
  Former/never smoker 82.04% 89.04% <.0001
  Current smoker 18% 10.96%
Alcohol consumption
  Former/never drinker 40.63% 59.28% <.0001
  Current drinker 59.37% 40.72%
Leptin (ng/mL)   11.78 ± 11.17 38.54 ± 24.87 <.0001
Adiponectin (μg/mL)   4.07 ± 3.39 6.03 ± 4.48 <.0001
BMI (kg/m2)   30.03 ± 6.34 32.28 ± 7.80 <.0001
Normal-weight (BMI < 25)   17.38% 11.05% <.0001
Overweight/Obese (BMI ≥ 25)   82.62% 88.95%  
Sleep duration (hours)   6.31 ± 1.47 6.48 ± 1.49 0.0021
Sleep duration categories
  Short (≤6 h) 23.98% 26.52% 0.09
  Medium (6-8 h) 70.17% 69.09%
  Long (>8 h) 5.86% 4.39%
Sleep quality
  Poor 11.05% 9.14% 0.10
  Fair 25.41% 22.94%  
  Good 31.82% 34.14%  
  Very good 23.15% 23.48%  
  Excellent 8.56% 10.30%  
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD or as percentages. P-values are calculated based on one-way ANOVA for continuous variables and X2 test for categorical variables. BMI: body mass index; PEA; proportion of global European ancestry.